Trick Flow's Power Port Heads 351 Cleveland Engine
A Look At Trick Flow's New Power Port Heads For The 351 Cleveland
From the August, 2010 issue of Modified Mustangs & Fords
By Wayne Cook
Tech | Custom Engine Build
Over in the Ford camp, they watched with great interest as the new 396 Daytona Mystery Motor from Chevrolet was introduced in 1965. The very successful engine featured a splayed-valve arrangement, which offered improved flow potential when compared to a conventional inline valve configuration. Partly in response to this successful GM offering, Ford introduced the 335-series 351 Cleveland engine for the 1970 model year. Produced from 1970 to 1974, the Ford 351 Cleveland has earned a reputation as one of the Blue Oval's best V-8 engines. Ford designed the 351 Cleveland as a "mid-block" engine option for passenger cars. It made more power than the 289-302-351 Windsor small-blocks, but used the same engine mount locations and bell housing pattern. The Cleveland engines were lighter and more compact than the FE and 385-series (429/460) big-blocks. The Cleveland's cylinder heads offered a canted-valve arrangement similar to the big-block Chevy. This allowed the use of larger valves and ports to increase airflow and power production from a relatively small cubic-inch package.
Ford made two types of Cleveland engines with designations based on carburetor type. The 2V had a two-barrel carburetor and made lots of low and midrange torque. The 2V cylinder heads featured open-style combustion chambers with a 2.04-inch intake valve and a 1.77-inch exhaust valve. These valves were larger than the ones used on the 390 and 428 FE big-blocks. The 2V heads had round intake and exhaust ports. More than 90 percent of Cleveland production was 2V engines. The 4V Cleveland was a whole different matter.
The Power Port head is available...
The Power Port head is available in two versions: The Power Port Cleveland 190 heads have 190cc intake and 112cc exhaust runners using Trick Flow's Fast as Cast casting process. Trick Flow digitizes CNC-ported runner profiles and incorporates them into the casting mold designs for the cylinder head. The result is a cast head with runners that flow at near CNC-ported levels without the expense of actually CNC-machining the part. That makes a Fast as Cast head an affordable way to build horsepower. The Power Port Cleveland 190 head also features 62cc CNC-profiled combustion chambers with 2.08-inch intake and 1.60-inch exhaust valves. The head comes fully assembled with your choice of 1.460-inch or 1.530-inch dual valvesprings, ductile iron valve seats, valve retainers and locks, and 7/16-inch ARP rocker arm studs. Your other choice is the Power Port Cleveland 225 head. This head is fully CNC-ported and profiled for maximum airflow.
The 4V Cleveland heads were designed for top-end horsepower and the engine came with a four-barrel carburetor. The cylinder heads had massive 21/2-x13/4-inch intake ports and the valves for the 4V engines, which were built through 1972, were equally generous with a 2.19-inch diameter on the intake and 1.71 inches for exhaust. The only other Ford engine with valves that large was the 460 Police Interceptor.
There were several versions of the Cleveland 4V. First was the M-code, produced in 1970-1971. It had 62.8cc closed combustion chambers and an 11:1 compression ratio. For 1971, compression was reduced to 10.7:1. Next was the R-code, produced in the 1971 Boss 351. It had 64-67cc closed chambers and a compression ratio of 11.7:1. By 1974, the Boss 351 had 74-77cc open chambers and a 9.0:1 compression ratio. The Q-Code version found in 1971-1974 cars had 74-77cc open chambers and a 9.0:1 compression ratio.
Trick Flow's 351 Cleveland...
Trick Flow's 351 Cleveland started with a 1971 4V block, bored 0.030-inch over, line-honed, and decked. Here, resident engine builder Ron Greczanik holds an Eagle Specialties/Probe Industries connecting rod and piston assembly. Creating a 383 stroker Cleveland requires 6.125-inch rods. The Eagle ESP H-beam rods are forged from 4340 steel and are rated up to 700 hp and 7,500 rpm. The Probe forged piston is designed specifically for 383ci and 408ci Cleveland strokers. It features full-floating wristpins and a 16cc reverse dome to help keep compression in check with the small 62cc combustion chambers. The ring pack is also from Probe; it features 1/16-inch top and secondary rings and a 3mm oil ring.
As you can see, the Cleveland engines pose a bit of a dilemma. The 2V engines lack the upper rpm horsepower capabilities of their 4V cousins and in turn the 4V engines had lousy street manners and didn't really come alive until 3,500 rpm and above. The source of the dilemma was in the cylinder heads. You'd think Ford would have made a head that combines the best qualities of the 2V and 4V designs, and you would be right, but only for Australian market 302s and 351s, which were produced until 1982. The Aussie heads combined 2V-sized runners and valves with 4V-type closed combustion chambers, resulting in an excellent performance street head. Factory Australian heads are sought after here in the U.S. to upgrade the 351 Cleveland because they add about one point of compression over open chamber 4V heads. Cleveland heads can also be adapted to the readily available and more affordable 351 Windsor blocks. This combo is commonly known as a "Clevor."
Now, thanks to Trick Flow Specialties you don't have to hunt down a pair of Australian heads or make do with factory 4V castings. The company's Power Port Cleveland aluminum cylinder heads will provide all the airflow you'll need to build a serious street or bracket racing engine and they're ready to bolt-on right out of the box. The Trick Flow Power Port Cleveland heads are similar to the Ford Aussie heads in that the Power Port Cleveland units combine 2V-based intake and exhaust runners with 4V-style closed combustion chambers. However, Trick Flow engineers raised the exhaust runners 0.100-inch from the stock location. This improves the short side radius of the runners, dramatically increasing airflow. Trick Flow also modified the oil return system to improve oil drain back into the pan, and included coolant passage provisions for mating the Power Port heads to a 351 Windsor block. A little machine work is all that's needed to finish the conversion.
The ARP rod bolts are torqued...
The ARP rod bolts are torqued to 63 ft-lb in three steps. The crankshaft is a 4340 forging from Probe. The internally balanced crank has a 3.750-inch stroke and 2.100-inch rod journals (same as small-block Chevy). Note the four-bolt main caps. These were factory on R-code 4V engines, but all Cleveland blocks and caps can be drilled for a four-bolt conversion.
The camshaft is a Crane PowerMax...
The camshaft is a Crane PowerMax retrofit hydraulic roller. Duration at 0.050 is 236 degrees intake/240 degrees exhaust; valve lift is 0.621/0.631-inch with the factory rocker arm ratio. The cam is designed to make power from 3,500 to 7,000 rpm, right in the meat of a hot Cleveland's powerband. With Crane Cams undergoing reorganization, the PowerMax cam is not currently available. A close alternative is a Comp Cams Magnum roller grind with 244 degrees duration at 0.050 and 0.612-inch valve lift; the powerband is a little lower at 2,500 to 6,000 rpm.
Cleveland engines use this...
Cleveland engines use this two-bolt thrust plate to keep the camshaft in place. Thrust plates with Torrington bearings are available from Summit Racing and Comp Cams, and can free up some power by reducing friction. The two plugs are for the main oil galleries. The Cleveland oiling system gives priority to the cam bearings at the expense of the rod and main bearings, which gave the Cleveland a reputation as a "bearing spinner" at high rpm.
After installing the timing...
After installing the timing chain set, Ron degrees the camshaft. It ended up at 108 degrees.
Cleveland engines have the...
Cleveland engines have the thermostat in the front of the block, unlike the 351 Windsor, which has the thermostat in the manifold. Coolant exits the heads, goes through the block, and out to the radiator so the intake manifold stays "dry". This steel plate acts as a timing chain cover; the factory water pump bolts directly to it. These plates usually crack and corrode over time. Summit Racing offers a laser-cut steel replacement. Make sure to use the factory brass restrictor plate underneath the thermostat to help prevent overheating issues.
The oil pump is a Melling...
The oil pump is a Melling standard pressure and standard volume unit with a Milodon pickup. Since the Cleveland's oiling system is biased to delivering oil to the top end at the expense of the rotating assembly, a high volume or even high pressure pump is not required.
The Fel-Pro oil pan gasket...
The Fel-Pro oil pan gasket is a multi-piece set with molded rubber end gaskets and composite pan rail gaskets. A dab of RTV where the rail and end gaskets meet helps prevent oil seepage. The fitting at the lower left is for the oil pressure gauge sending unit.
Trick Flow builds engines and tests the results on its in-house dyno because it's an important part of their development process. In fact, no cylinder head goes out the door until it's been put through the test on the Superflow engine dynamometer and comes out making the desired horsepower. To test the new 351C Power Port Cleveland 190 cylinder heads, Trick Flow built a 383ci engine with a 9.65:1 compression ratio. Engine builder Ron Greczanik stuffed the 2V block with a Probe forged crank and pistons, Eagle Specialties rods, and a Crane 0.236/0.240-inch lift hydraulic roller cam. Other bits include an Edelbrock Performer Air-Gap intake manifold, Trick Flow 1.73 roller rocker arms, and an MSD Billet distributor. Outfitted with a Holley 750-cfm Double Pumper carburetor and 13/4-inch dyno headers, the 351 proved to be a stout motor, cranking out almost 524 hp and 480 lb-ft of torque. Like a Cleveland 4V, peak horsepower came in at a lofty 6,500 rpm. Peak torque arrived at a touch over 4,500 rpm. But the Power Port heads shined down low as well, with more than 400 lb-ft of torque available at 3,000 rpm. Thanks to Trick Flow and its Power Port Cleveland heads, you can now build a 351 Cleveland (or a 351M, 400, or 351W) that is a true all-around performance engine that's at home on the street or at the track. Follow along with us and we'll show you some of the more interesting details in this Cleveland combination build.
Trick Flow Cleveland Build Parts List
All part numbers are Summit Racing unless otherwise noted (*)
|TFS-51600004-M62||TFS Power Port Cleveland 190 Cylinder Heads, pair||$2,095.95|
|*Probe 10012||Crankshaft forged 4340 steel, 3.750-in stroke internal balance||$685.99|
|*Probe 14213-030||SRS Series Pistons (forged, 16cc reverse dome)||$655.99|
|ESP-6125B3D||Eagle Specialties ESP H-Beam Connecting Rods, set of 8||$499.95|
|CLE-MS1010H||Clevite H-Series Main Bearing Set||$76.95|
|CLE-CB663HN||Clevite H-Series Rod Bearing Set||$71.95|
|DUR-FP-26T||Dura-Bond Cam Bearing Set||$49.95|
|FMS-M-6500-S58||Ford Racing Hydraulic Roller Lifters, set of 16||$495.72|
|TFS-21408000||Trick Flow Chrome-moly Pushrods, 8-in long, set of 16||$86.95|
|TFS-53400621||Trick Flow 1.73 Ratio Roller Rocker Arms, set of 16||$289.95|
|MIL-30735||Milodon Stock Replacement Steel Oil Pan||$135.95|
|MIL-18635||Milodon Oil Pump Pickup||$29.95|
|MEL-M84A||Melling Oil Pump, Standard Pressure/Volume||$45.95|
|ARP-154-7905||ARP Oil Pump Driveshaft Kit||$18.25|
|ATI-918920||ATI Harmonic Damper, Internal Balance||$378.05|
|EDL-7564||Edelbrock Performer Air-Gap Intake Manifold||$330.88|
|MSD-8580||MSD Billet Distributor||$221.95|
|MSD-8581||MSD Bronze Distributor Gear||$39.95|
|FRM-3924||Autolite Copper Core Spark Plug (each)||$1.50|
|MEZ-WP111B||Mezeire 100 Series Electric Water Pump||$319.95|
|MEZ-WP123B||Mezeire Water Pump Backing Plate||$45.95|
|MEZ-WP1150B||Mezeire NPT Fitting to Hose Adapter||$19.99|
|*FRPP-M-6582-Z351||Ford Racing Cast Aluminum Valve Covers||$159.00|
|ARP-154-4004||ARP Pro Series Head Stud Kit||$129.10|
|ARP-154-2501||ARP Balancer Bolt Kit||$19.95|
|FPP-1013||Fel-Pro Performance Head Gasket (each)||$33.95|
|FPP-1240||Fel-Pro Performance Intake Manifold Gasket||$21.95|
|FPP-2902||Fel-Pro Performance Rear Main Seal Set||$23.95|
|FPP-1636||Fel-Pro Performance Valve Cover Gasket Set||$37.95|
|FPP-1430||Fel-Pro Performance Header Gasket Set||$21.95|
|FPP-2710||Fel-Pro Performance R.A.C.E Gasket Set||$27.95|
|SLP-381-8016||Sealed Power Brass Freeze Plug Kit||$10.69|
|SHW-DE1621||Dupli-Color Engine Paint, Old Ford Blue||$6.95|
This Milodon oil pan is an...
This Milodon oil pan is an ideal OEM replacement. The steel pan holds five quarts of oil, is baffled to help keep oil in the sump and off the crankshaft, and has a durable gold iridite finish.
The ATI Super Damper works...
The ATI Super Damper works great for a street/strip engine like the Cleveland we're building. The damper helps control torsional vibrations through 6,000-plus rpm, and features replaceable elastomer strips-you can tune the damper to your specific engine by changing the strips. The SFI 18.1-approved Super Damper has a CNC-machined steel shell that bolts to the separate crank hub, which means the timing marks on the shell won't "creep" like they can on OEM dampers.
Here's what this engine build...
Here's what this engine build is all about. The Trick Flow Power Port Cleveland 190 cylinder heads provide the low and midrange torque capacity of factory 2V heads with the high rpm horsepower potential of the 4V head design. Trick Flow even modified the oil return system to improve oil drain back into the pan. The Power Port Cleveland 190 heads come assembled with your choice of 1.460-inch (0.650-inch max valve lift) or 1.530-inch (0.680-inch max lift) valvesprings, valves, retainers, and locks. Here, Ron slides the Power Port Cleveland 190 head over the ARP head studs. While studs aren't absolutely necessary for an engine at this power level, they tend to take and hold torque settings better than regular head bolts, and make servicing easier too, which is a plus for a dyno mule like this Cleveland. The gaskets are Fel-Pro.
The Power Port Cleveland heads...
The Power Port Cleveland heads use adjustable, stud-mounted rocker arms (only solid lifter Clevelands were factory-equipped with adjustable rockers). Trick Flow provides guide plates for 5/16-inch diameter pushrods. The hydraulic roller lifters are from Ford Racing, and are designed for retrofitting early small-blocks and 351s with roller camshafts.
The Trick Flow aluminum roller...
The Trick Flow aluminum roller rockers are designed for use on 429/460 big-blocks, but they are interchangeable with the 351 Cleveland-even the 1.73 ratio is factory for both engines. The rockers feature CNC-machined bodies, needle bearing fulcrums and roller tips to reduce friction, and a machined relief on the underside of the body for added valvespring clearance. The 8-inch-long pushrods are also Trick Flow items. The one-piece pushrods are cold-formed from 0.080-inch wall 4130 chrome-moly, and are heat treated for use with guideplates.
The Fel-Pro intake manifold...
The Fel-Pro intake manifold gasket set comes with end rail gaskets, but Ron prefers a nice thick bead of RTV black silicone, which does a much better job of sealing, and won't slip or slide out when you torque down the manifold he tells us.
The Cleveland 2V and 4V use...
The Cleveland 2V and 4V use different intake manifolds due to the difference in port sizes. Since the Power Port Cleveland 190 cylinder heads have 2V-style ports, Trick Flow elected to use an Edelbrock Performer RPM Air-Gap intake, which is an excellent way to upgrade a 2V Cleveland to a four-barrel carburetor. The Air-Gap features raised runners away from the lifter valley cover, creating an open space for air to flow through. This helps cool the incoming air and fuel, creating a denser mixture-and more power. The Performer Air-Gap has a 1,500-6,500 rpm operating range.
Trick Flow crowned the 383ci...
Trick Flow crowned the 383ci stroker with shiny Ford Racing valve covers. The die-cast aluminum covers are tall enough to clear roller rockers and stud girdles, and are less prone to flex than stamped steel covers. The covers fit 351C, 351M, 400, and Boss 302 applications.
Ron lowers an MSD Billet distributor...
Ron lowers an MSD Billet distributor into place. The distributor has a magnetic trigger for accurate timing through 10,000 rpm, an adjustable mechanical advance, and a CNC-machined billet aluminum housing that won't flex or wobble like OE housings can. Ron swapped out the iron distributor gear for a roller cam-compatible MSD bronze gear.
With a 35 gallon-per-minute...
With a 35 gallon-per-minute flow rating, this Mezeire 100 Series electric water pump will feed our Cleveland all the coolant it needs. And because it's electric, the pump won't rob any horsepower like a mechanical pump would. Other goodies include a one-piece carbon-ceramic seal, CNC-machined aluminum housing, and an RF suppression circuit to minimize interference with onboard electronics. Since it's a universal part, the pump needs a separate backing plate tailored to your specific engine. Mezeire also has these available.
Three hundred eighty-three...
Three hundred eighty-three cubic inches of Cleveland muscle, ready for a flogging on Trick Flow's Superflow engine dyno. As noted earlier, the engine will get a Holley HP Series 750 cfm double pumper carburetor and Hooker Super Competition headers with 13/4-inch primary tubes for the testing session.
As the graph shows, the 383-cube...
As the graph shows, the 383-cube 351C proved to be a stout motor. Going by the peak power figures of 524 hp at 6,500 rpm and 480 lb-ft of torque at a touch over 4,500 rpm-the engine acts a lot like a Cleveland 4V. But take a look at that flat torque curve. There is more than 400 lb-ft of torque available at 3,000 rpm, and the Cleveland is still pulling like a freight train at 6,500 rpm. Both monster torque and high-rpm horsepower are what you get with Trick Flow's Power Port Cleveland 190 heads.